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History of Racial/Ethnic Minorities and Education
Race and Ethnicity in Education
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Two African American youths are turned away by state troopers from entering an all-white school. Although the Supreme Court outlawed segregated schools in its Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, many southern school districts ignored the decision and were supported by the local law enforcement.

History of Race and Ethnicity in Education


1849 – Roberts v. the City of Boston

            -First documented case regarding school integration


1855 – Racially segregated schools are banned in Massachusetts by state


1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case.

            -Approved legally enforced segregation.

-Established concept of “separate but equal”


1930s – 1940s – NAACP fights for equalization in education


1950 – Sweatt v. Painter Supreme Court case

            -Case requires the University of Texas Law School to integrate

            -Alters NAACP’s legal strategy from equalization to desegregation


1954 – Brown v. Board of Education

            -Rules that  “Separate but equal” is unconstitutional


1955 – Brown II Supreme Court case

            -Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson decision

            -Orders desegregation in all schools

            -Informs schools that they must desegregate at “deliberate speed”


1957 – Little Rock, Arkansas

            -The Brown decision is blatantly defied

            -Results in some schools closing for up to 5 years


1963 – March on Washington


1964 – Civil Rights Act signed by President Johnson

-Makes discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, etc., illegal in the U.S.


1971 – Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education Supreme Court case

-Orders that schools use measures such as busing and school pairing in order to desegregate


2000 – Goals 2000 created by the Clinton administration

            -Works towards increasing overall success of American students


2001 –No Child Left Behind Act (Bush Administration)

            -Attempts to bridge the achievement gap


2004 – Marks 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education decision